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Current Situation and Countermeasures of Chinese Daily-use Ceramics-Abbreviated Version

Ceramic Mug Group Key:ceramic coffee mug
Ceramic Mug Group, 1. The current situation of the industry

The world's daily-use ceramics production base, to be distributed in Asia, Western Europe and Eastern Europe. Among them, Western Europe accounts for about 15% of the world's total output, the main porcelain-producing countries, including Britain, Germany, France, Italy, etc., the main production of hard ceramics and urns, such as high-grade products; Eastern Europe accounted for about 7% of the world's total output, the main production of mid-range daily-use ceramics(ceramic coffee mugs). Asia's largest production, accounting for more than 70% of the total output, the main porcelain-producing countries (or regions), including China, Japan, South Korea, Thailand, the product to low-end ceramic cups.

China's daily-use ceramic production areas are mainly distributed in Chaozhou, Guangdong, Hunan Liling, Guangxi Beiliu, Jiangxi Jingdezhen, Shandong Zibo, Henan Jiaozuo, Yuzhou, Hebei Tangshan, Handan and other places, its production accounts for about 90% of the country.

1.1 Technical equipment situation

Daily ceramic product materials include feldspathic porcelain, magnesium porcelain, bone china, high alumina porcelain mug and fine ceramics, throwing feldspathic porcelain. Glass ceramics with its rich source of raw materials; the level of mechanization of the production process and high labor productivity; product whiteness, translucency, knife and fork scoring performance and other advantages, is currently in the ascendant, is a new variety of daily-use ceramics with great potential for development.

Raw material processing basic mechanization, specialization, Guangdong kaolin raw materials mostly belong to weathering residual clay, raw ore alumina content is low, poor plasticity. In order to improve the performance of the process, the traditional machine and pestle crushing, washing with water processing methods thrown widely used.

Forming to rolling, grouting-based, plastic pressure, high-pressure grouting process and equipment has been used by a few enterprises, but has not yet been widely used. Chaozhou porcelain area for daily porcelain craft needs, a large number of pressure grouting production of shaped, relief products, effectively improve the added value of the product.

Drying to kiln waste heat as a heat source, part of the chain desiccant or tunnel dryer. Most of the throws follow the chamber-type drying room, with long drying period, large floor space and low heat utilization rate. Repair, water process basically rely on manual, more people, covers a large area, and produces a large number of mud sewage. Daily-use ceramics enterprise labor productivity is low, product consistency is poor, which is directly related to the drying, billet repair, on the low degree of mechanization of the water process.

Firing commonly use liquefied petroleum gas and other gaseous fuels, open flame firing. Large and medium-sized enterprises use tunnel kilns, roller kilns and other continuous kilns, small enterprises are using shuttle kilns. The province's daily-use ceramics industry has about 500 tunnel kilns, more than 100 roller kilns, shuttle kilns more than 3,000. Energy-saving effect and firing quality for the kiln renewal and transformation of the determining factors, the speed of equipment renewal accelerated. The automation and energy consumption level of new kilns is close to that of imported equipment, but there is still a gap between them and imported equipment in terms of manufacturing precision, durability and stability. Kiln manufacturing threshold is low, the quality of equipment and energy consumption varies, daily-use porcelain products firing fuel consumption is mainly affected by the performance of the kiln and the product and kiln weight ratio, 1350 ℃ reduction firing conditions measured results: K porcelain consumption of liquefied petroleum gas 0.1122-0.4936K, equivalent to 5393-23727KJ/K porcelain.

Decoration to the glaze color-based, glaze, underglaze color has not been widely used. Glazed products lead, cadmium dissolved can meet the U.S. FDA requirements. Many products using shaped, relief or color glaze decoration, no longer add color, effectively avoiding the problem of excessive lead and cadmium dissolved.

1.2 Clean production

Daily ceramics production of the main raw materials for porcelain clay, porcelain glaze, gypsum, etc., are natural minerals, are non-toxic substances; raw material processing and billet repair are used in wet process, dust pollution is relatively small production process of wastewater is mainly mud-containing wastewater, precipitation treatment, most of which can be recycled; solid waste mainly for the waste of billet, mud, gypsum, kiln furniture and inspection of unqualified ceramics waste, mainly silicate-based substances. . Waste billets and waste materials are mixed into the injection slurry during slurrying after decontamination and iron removal treatment; waste glaze slurry is mixed into the new glaze slurry after filtration and re-commissioning before being put into use; waste gypsum is collected and sold to cement factories as raw materials; waste porcelain has been recycled and reused by some manufacturers but most of them are still disposed of as garbage. Due to the use of clean gas fuel, the concentration of sulfur dioxide and soot in the exhaust gas produced during the combustion process is lower than the emission standard. However, the high price of fuel, accounting for a large proportion of the production costs, therefore, energy saving has become a daily ceramic enterprises to carry out cleaner production focus.

2. the existence of problems

After a new round of rapid development in the 1990s, China has become the world's daily-use ceramics production, consumption of large countries, Shandong has become one of the country's largest export production base of daily-use ceramics, but compared with the world's advanced countries and even the domestic architectural ceramics industry, there is still not a small gap, mainly manifested as:

2.1 Low product value

According to customs statistics, the average price of daily-use ceramics exports in 2020 for 1070 U.S. dollars / ton, while the average price of imported products for the same period of 5050 U.S. dollars / ton, a difference of 4.72 times. That is, the same create 10,000 U.S. dollars of GDP, imported products only need about 2 tons of porcelain, while the domestic porcelain needs nearly 10 tons, due to the low sales price of the product, high production and low output value, will inevitably lead to high energy consumption per unit of GDP. Therefore, to improve the quality of ceramic products and value-added, is one of the most effective way to reduce energy consumption of ceramic industry.

2.2 Low production efficiency

Labor productivity is an important indicator of an industry's technical management level and competitiveness. Compared with building ceramics, daily ceramics labor productivity gap is obvious. Tile production, for example, an annual output of 3 million pieces require labor 150 people, according to the lowest price of 10 yuan / piece, the annual output value of 30 million yuan, the labor productivity of 200,000 yuan / person per year. And the same workers to produce daily-use ceramics, up to 2 million pieces of annual output, according to 5 yuan / piece, annual output value of 10 million yuan, labor productivity of 67,000 yuan / person year, which is the value of ceramic tile unit product is much lower than daily-use porcelain, but the economic benefits are not worse than the main reason for daily-use ceramics.

Low labor productivity to daily-use ceramics enterprises have two negative impacts: one is unable to attract and retain high-level technical and managerial personnel, resulting in technology, management sloppy; Second, it is difficult to implement the legal rights and interests of workers, such as labor insurance treatment, in the case of labor shortages, the competitiveness of recruitment is not as good as other industries. With the adjustment of national industrial policy and labor management efforts to continue to improve, this problem will be more prominent.

In fact, daily ceramics raw material processing and firing process equipment level is high, the number of workers and building ceramics is not much difference, the difference lies mainly in the forming part. China Ceramics Manufacturer ,A ceramic tile production line forming up to 4 people, daily ceramics forming mainly by manual labor or single machine production, did not form a continuous production line, low efficiency, the need for a large number of production workers. Therefore, the fundamental way out to raise the labor productivity of daily-use ceramics industry is to improve the level of mechanization and automation, especially the forming process of mechanization and automation level.

3.  the response to countermeasures
In the current development of a low-carbon economy, the construction of an environmentally friendly society has become a global consensus in the context of the country to take the policy of not encouraging the export of high energy-consuming resource-based products, while developed countries in the name of environmental protection to set up technical barriers to limit the export of ceramic products in China. Traditional ceramic enterprises only through technological innovation, the implementation of energy saving and emission reduction, pay attention to environmental protection in order to have space for survival and development. Due to the promulgation of the new labor law to try and a new generation of workers to change the concept of employment, the use of mechanization or even automation to survive will become the general trend.

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